皮划艇常规术语

*机器翻译,尚未人工校对。

ABEAM -- To the right, or at right angles to the center of a water craft.
ABOARD -- On, or in, a water craft.
ACCESS POINT -- The spot on the banks of a river or lake where you put in or take out.
ACTIVE BLADE -- When using a double, or kayak, blade, that blade which is in the water at any given moment.
AFLOAT -- The act of floating on the water. Not aground on a rock or sandbar.
AFT -- Toward the rear, or stern, of a water craft.
AGROUND -- A point in which a kayak or other water craft is stuck upon a sandbar or shoal, especially when not intended to be.
ANCHOR -- A mechanical device that prevents a vessel from moving
ANCHOR TROLLEY -- Apparatus that runs the length of your kayak on one side. You run your anchor line through a ring in the rigging, and this will allow you to move the ring via the rigging to change the placement of your anchor.
ASTERN -- Toward the rear of a kayak or other water craft.
AZIMUTH -- The angle of horizontal deviation from the north. When using a compass, the direction is read in degrees. South, for example, would be an azimuth of 180 degrees.
BACKPADDLE -- Paddling backward as a means of slowing or reversing the forward motion of a kayak.
BAIL -- To empty water from a kayak by scooping it out with a pail or pumping it out with a bilge pump.
BEAM -- the width of a kayak or other water craft when measured at its widest point.
BEAR OFF -- To push off from shore or an obstruction.
BELOW -- Downstream or down river.
BENT SHAFT PADDLE -- A paddle in which the blade is set at anangle to the shaft. Provides greater efficiency when paddling in calm or flat water.
BILGE -- the low point on the inside of a kayak's hull.
BILGE PUMP -- a hand or foot pump used to remove water that collects in the bilge.
BLADDER -- An inflatable air bag placed inside a kayak to provide greater buoyancy in the event of a capsize.
BLADE -- The wide, flat end of a paddle.
BOW -- The front or forward end of the kayak.
BOW-IN -- Kayak oriented with the bow forward.
BRACING -- A stroke used to provide support and prevent the kayak from capsizing. See "high brace" and "low brace."
BROACHING -- A point when the kayak is oriented broadside to waves, currents, or an obstacle. The result of an uncontrolled broach is often a capsize.
BULKHEAD -- A partition beneath the forward and aft decks of a kayak in which gear or bladders are stowed.
CAPSIZE -- The act of flipping or rolling a kayak into an inverted position. Can be righted by a combat roll, or by the paddler's egress from the boat.
CHANNEL -- A section of passable water through reefs, shoals, and other obstructions.
CHART -- A navigational map.
CHUTE -- A section of river that flows between two large obstructions, compressing the water and causing a swift current.
COCKPIT -- the opening in the kayak deck in which the paddler sits.
COAMING -- Piece around the rim of a kayak cockpit to which a spray skirt is attached.
DEAD RECKONING -- A navigational term. A way of determining your position by taking into account such factors as currents, wind speed, and your projected course and speed.
DECK -- The cover or top of a kayak.
DRAFT -- The distance between the waterline on a kayak and the bottom of the boat's keel.
DRAG -- Any resistance to a kayak or other boat's forward motion. Special waxes can be used to decrease the drag on a kayak's hull.
DRY SUIT -- A loose fitting, insualted and rubberized garment worn over clothing and designed to keep water out completely. Designed to keep the wearer warm even in sub-zero temperatures.
DUFFEK TURN -- A compound stroke normally used for entering an eddy. Also see High Brace.
EDDY -- A current--usually behind a large rock or other obstruction in a stream or river--which is at variance with the main current. Water flow in eddies either stops or reverses and runs upstream from the main current. Eddies can be used as rest stops or to maneuver upstream or downstream in a technique known as "eddy hopping."
EDDY LINE -- The boundary in a river between the primary downstream current and a secondary upstream current.
ENDER -- A playboating maneuver where the kayaker allows the bow of his boat to be sucked into a hole, standing the kayak up on end, until the buoyancy of the boat sends it shooting back up in the air.
FACE -- The side of a paddle blade that is pushing against the water.
FALLS -- A sudden drop over an edge where water falls free into a pool below. Falls should be attempted by advanced kayakers only.
FEATHER -- The To turn the paddle so that the blade is parallel to the current or wind and the resistance is reduced.
FERRY -- To move a kayak or other water craft laterally across a current.
FIBERGLASS -- A lightweight composite material used in the construction of kayak hulls. Fiberglass is lightweight, has good strength, and is relatively easy to repair.
FLATWATER -- Calm river, lake, or ocean water without rapids or high waves.
FLOTATION -- Foam or air bladders placed in the hull of a kayak forward and aft to increase buoyancy and keep the boat from sinking in the event of a capsize.
FOLDBOAT -- Ingeniously designed kayaks made of a rubberized fabric or canvas with a collapsible wooden or alumnium frame; can be packed into a small bundle or pack for easy transportation.
FOOT BRACE -- a peddle-like foot rest, normally found in sea kayaks, that provides greater maneuvering control through a skeg or rudder.
FORWARD FERRY -- A maneuver whereby the kayak angles downstream to the current and crosses laterally to the opposite side of the river.
GIRTH -- The circumference of a kayak or other boat's hull at its widest point.
GRADIENT -- A measurement of the degree of inclination of a river, as in the number of feet the river drops per kilometer or mile.
HATCH -- Covering on the deck of a sea kayak beneath which food and other gear can be stored in various compartments.
HEAVY WATER -- High velocity, turbulent water, usually through rapids and other constricted waterways.
HELMET -- Hard plastic or Kevlar shell that covers and protects the paddler's head. Optional in sea kayaking, mandatory in river and whitewater kayaking.
HIGH BRACE -- A strong, supportive bracing stroke normally used when entering or leaving an eddy and a kayaker's best defense against an inadverdant capsize. Also referred to as a "Duffek stroke."
LOW BRACE -- A supportive stroke where the arms are low and close to the body, and the back face of the paddle is braced against the water.
HOLE -- A dangerous and turbulent river feature, usually formed behind large rocks or other obstructions. Normally to be avoided, a hole can suck a kayak beneath the water and hold it there. Playboaters, on the other hand, often seek out holes where they can pop "enders". See Enders.
HULL -- The main body or shell of a kayak. Hulls can be made of fiberglass, plastic, Kevlar, Airalite, wood, or inflatable rubber.
HUNG UP -- When a kayak or other water craft is caught and trapped on a rock or other obstruction.
HYDRAULIC -- On a river, an area where water backflows at the base of a ledge or rock or otherwise reverses itself.
HYPOTHERMIA -- A condition where the body's core temperature drops to a dangerous level, normally in wet and cold conditions. The victim can become drowsy or disoriented. If not treated quickly, hypothermia can lead to death due to exposure.
INTERNATIONAL SCALE OF RIVER DIFFICULTY -- Guidelines for rating the violence of a river's rapids. Categories range from Class I, marred by light ripples, to Class VI, violent whitewater that should only be attempted by advanced paddlers.
K-1 -- A one-man or solo kayak.
K-2 -- A two-man or tandem kayak.
KAYAK -- A decked craft similar to a canoe and propelled by a double or single-bladed paddle.
KEVLAR -- A synthetic material used in kayak construction (and bulletproof vests). The advantages of kevlar include light weight and strength up to five times that of steel.
LASH -- To secure gear to the deck of a kayak, usually with a rope or bungee cord.
LAUNCH -- The act of propelling the kayak or other boat from the shore and into the water.
LEEWARD -- Moving away from the wind. Downwind.
LIFE JACKET -- A flotation device worn by a paddler and used to provide buoyancy in the water. Also known as a life vest or PFD.
OUTFITTER -- Commercial companies that supply all the equipment necessary for kayaking and wilderness travel.
OUTSIDE BANK -- The outside of a bend in a stream or river.
PADDLE -- A shaft with two flat blades used to propel a kayak through the water. Paddles can be made of wood, alumnium, or plastic.
PEELING OUT -- Technique of leaving an eddy whereby the paddler points his kayak upstream, plants a high brace, and lets the main current swing him around and into the flow of the river.
PFD -- Personal Flotation Device. See Life Jacket.
PILLOW ROCK -- A deceptive river feature where water flows gently over an underwater obstruction.
PITCH -- A steeper section of a river rapid. A sudden drop.
PIVOT -- A sharp turn around a point in the water.
PLAYBOATING -- The act of performing stunts and other maneuvers in whitewater kayaks. Normally for advanced paddlers only.
POOL -- A stretch of calm water on a stream or river.
POWER FACE -- The face of a paddle blade that pushes against the water.
PRY STROKE. A paddle stroke used to move the craft sideways, away from the paddle.
PURCHASE. The application of power on a paddle to get leverage.
PUT-IN. Where a canoe is placed in the water; a launching site; the start of a trip.
QUARTERING. Running at an angle to the wind or waves; a technique for riding over waves at a slight angle to avoid burying the bow in a standing wave.
RAPIDS -- A fast, turbulent stretch of whitewater normally accompanied by rocks and a steep gradient.
READING THE WATER -- A technique of judging water conditions and determining the best route through rapids on a river.
REVERSAL -- A water feature similar to an eddy where the current reverses back on itself. Reversals are usually caused by rocks or other obstructions on the surface or beneath the water.
RIFFLES -- Light, shallow rapids found in Class I whitewater.
SCOUTING -- The act of inspecting an unknown section of a river before attempting it. Always a good way to stay out of trouble.
SCULLING -- A supporting stroke that keeps the paddle in the water at all times in a repeated arching motion. Used to support the paddler after a capsize or when encountering a difficult stretch of water.
SHAFT -- On a kayak paddle, the handle area between the grip and the blades.
SHOAL -- A particularly shallow area in a body of water, usually formed by a sand bar or other underwater obstruction.
SLALOM -- A form of river racing in which kayaks are maneuvered through a series of gates.
SMOKER -- A stretch of aggressive or violent whitewater.
SPRAY SKIRT -- A fabric skirt that surrounds the paddler's waist and keeps water from entering the boat through the cockpit.
SQUALL -- A quick moving storm over the water, usually accompanied by gusts of wind and rain.
STANDING WAVE -- A whitewater feature where a wave remains stationary in one place. Used for surfing and other playboating maneuvers.
STARBOARD -- The right side of the kayak when facing the bow.
STERN -- The rear of the kayak or other water craft.
STRAINER. Brush or trees which have fallen into a river, usually on the outside of a bend. Current may sweep through, but the obstruction will stop a craft. Can be deadly.
STROKES -- A variety of paddling movements used to control the speed and direction of a kayak.
STROBE LIGHT -- A flashing light fitted to a sea kayak as a warning signal to other boats in the area.
SURFING -- The act of "riding" a wave front, either on the ocean or in whitewater rapids.
SWAMP -- When a kayak is capsized or inadvertently filled with water.
TANDUM KAYAK -- A kayak build to accomidate two paddlers. Normally a sea kayak. Also known as a "K-2" kayak.
TECHNICAL PASSAGE -- A stretch of difficult rapids that requires careful maneuvering for safe transit.
THROAT -- The area on a paddle shaft that fans out into the wider blade.
TROUGH -- The depression between two waves.
UNDERWAY -- The trip, alas, has begun.
VHF RADIO -- Very High Frequency radio. Use on sea kayaks to get current weather conditions and other information. Can also be used to send out distress calls in an emergency.
WATERLINE -- The line of water along the hull of a kayak or other water craft when it is afloat.
WAVE CREST -- The summit of a wave, opposite of the trough.
WET EXIT -- Bailing out of a capsized kayak when rolling is not an option.
WET SUIT -- A neoprene bodysuit worn close to the body and used to keep out the chill of cold water. A good wet suit can protect a paddler against hypothermia in cold weather situations.
WHITEWATER -- Also known as rapids and wildwater. A stretch of turbulent, fast moving water that flows through rocks, over falls, and around other obstructions.
WINDWARD -- The direction from which the wind blows. The opposite of leeward.
ABEAM - 向右或与水运工具中心成直角。
ABOARD - 在水上飞机上或在水上飞机上。
交通点 - 在您放入或取出的河流或湖泊岸边的地方。
活动刀片 - 当使用双层或皮划艇刀片时,在任何特定时刻在水中的刀片。
AFLOAT - 漂浮在水面上的行为。不要搁在岩石或沙洲上。
AFT - 朝向水上船的后部或船尾。
AGROUND - 皮划艇或其他水上工具卡在沙洲或沙滩上的一个点,特别是在无意的情况下。
锚点 - 防止船只移动的机械装置
ANCHOR TROLLEY - 在一侧运行皮艇长度的装置。您可以通过索具中的环来运行您的锚索,这将允许您通过索具移动环来更改锚的位置。
ASTERN - 朝向皮划艇或其他水上飞机的后部。
AZIMUTH - 与北方水平偏离的角度。使用指南针时,方向以度为单位读取。例如,南方将是一个180度的方位角。
BACKPADDLE - 向后划桨,作为减缓或逆转皮划艇向前运动的手段。
保释 - 通过用桶舀出皮艇或用舱底泵将其抽出来从皮艇中清空水。
BEAM - 皮划艇或其他水上运动工具在最宽处测量时的宽度。
BEAR OFF - 从海岸或障碍物推开。
以下 - 下游或下游河流。
BENT SHAFT PADDLE - 刀片与轴成一角的桨。在平静或平坦的水面上划桨时可提供更高的效率。
BILGE - 皮划艇船体内侧的低点。
舱底泵 - 一种手或脚泵,用于清除收集在舱底水中的水。
BLADDER - 在皮艇内放置充气气囊,以在发生翻滚时提供更大的浮力。
BLADE - 桨的宽平端。
弓 - 皮艇的前端或前端。
弓 - 皮艇定向与弓向前。
支撑 - 用于提供支撑并防止皮划艇倾覆的中风。请参阅“高支撑”和“低支撑”。
缓慢行驶 - 当皮划艇横越波浪,水流或障碍物时的一点。一个不受控制的拉刀的结果往往是倾覆。
BULKHEAD - 在皮艇的前后甲板下面的一个隔板,其中装有齿轮或气囊。
CAPSIZE - 将皮艇翻转或翻转成倒立姿势的行为。可以通过战斗辊或划船者从船上的出口进行调整。
CHANNEL - 一段通过暗礁,浅滩和其他障碍物的可通行水域。
图 - 导航地图。
CHUTE - 在两个大障碍物之间流动的一段河流,压缩水流并产生迅速的水流。
驾驶舱 - 桨手坐在皮划艇甲板上的开口。
COAMING - 围绕皮艇驾驶舱的边缘配有喷雾裙。
DEAD RECKONING - 导航术语。通过考虑电流,风速以及您的预计航向和速度等因素来确定您的位置的方法。
甲板 - 皮船的外罩或顶部。
草稿 - 皮划艇的水线​​与船的龙骨底部之间的距离。
拖曳 - 任何抵抗皮划艇或其他船只向前运动的阻力。特殊的蜡可以用来减少皮艇的船体阻力。
干衣服 - 一件宽松的衣服,衬衫和橡胶衣服穿在衣服上,旨在完全防水。即使在零度以下的温度下也能保持佩戴者的温暖。
DUFFEK TURN - 通常用于进入涡流的复合冲程。另请参阅High Brace。
EDDY - 电流 - 通常位于溪流或河流中的大石块或其他障碍物后面 - 与主电流不一致。涡流中的水流停止或逆转,并从主流向上流动。漩涡可以用作休息站或在被称为“涡流跳跃”的技术中上行或下行。
EDDY LINE - 主要下游电流与次要上游电流之间的河流边界。
ENDER - 一种游戏机动,其中皮划艇允许他的船首被吸入一个洞中,将皮艇站立起来,直到船的浮力将其发射回空中。
脸部 - 推动水面的桨叶的一侧。
瀑布 - 突然落在一个边缘,水流入下面的水池。瀑布只能由高级皮划艇尝试。
FEATHER - 要转动桨叶,使桨叶与电流或风平行,阻力减小。
FERRY - 横向移动皮艇或其他水上工具。
FIBERGLASS - 用于建造皮艇船体的轻质复合材料。玻璃纤维重量轻,强度好,相对容易修理。
FLATWATER - 平静的河流,湖泊或海洋没有激流或大浪。
FLOTATION - 在皮艇的前部和船尾放置泡沫或空气囊以增加浮力并防止船在沉没时下沉。
FOLDBOAT - 巧妙设计的皮划艇,由橡胶织物或帆布制成,具有可折叠的木制或铝制框架; 可以包装成小捆或包装以便于运输。
FOOT BRACE - 通常在海上皮划艇上发现的类似兜风的脚踏板,通过ske鳍或方向舵提供更大的机动控制。
FORWARD FERRY - 一种机动游戏,皮艇从水流角度向下游流动,横向穿过河流的另一侧。
GIRTH - 皮划艇或其他船体最宽处的周长。
梯度 - 衡量河流的倾斜程度,例如河流每公里或英里下降的英尺数量。
HATCH - 覆盖在海上皮艇的甲板上,食物和其他装备可以存放在不同的隔间中。
重水 - 高速度的湍流水,通常通过急流和其他狭窄的水道。
头盔 - 覆盖并保护桨手头部的硬塑料或凯夫拉尔外壳。可选海上皮划艇,必须在河流和白水划皮艇。
HIGH BRACE - 在进入或离开漩涡时通常使用的强劲且支撑性的支撑杆,以及皮艇对无意识倾覆的最佳防御。也被称为“Duffek中风”。
LOW BRACE - 一种支撑性的中风,手臂低而靠近身体,并且桨的背面支撑在水面上。
洞 - 通常形成在大石块或其他障碍物后面的危险和动荡的河流特征。通常要避免的是,一个洞可以吸入水下的皮艇并将其固定在那里。另一方面,游击手往往会在可以弹出“恩德斯”的地方找到漏洞。见Enders。
船体 - 皮划艇的主体或外壳。船体可以由玻璃纤维,塑料,凯夫拉尔,艾拉尔铁木,木材或充气橡胶制成。
HUNG UP - 皮划艇或其他水上运输工具被困在岩石或其他障碍物上时。
液压 - 在河流上,水在岩壁或岩石底部回流或以其他方式倒转的区域。
HYPOTHERMIA - 身体核心温度下降至危险水平的情况,通常在潮湿和寒冷的条件下。受害者可能变得昏昏欲睡或迷失方向。如果不能迅速治疗,体温过低会导致因暴露而死亡。
国际河流规模难度 - 河流急流暴力评估指南。类别范围从第一类,轻微涟漪到第六类,只有先进的桨手才能尝试的暴力白水。
K-1 - 一个人或独木舟。
K-2 - 双人或串联皮艇。
卡亚克 - 类似于独木舟的双层或单桨桨式推进式甲板艇。
凯夫拉(KEVLAR) - 用于皮艇建造(和防弹背心)的合成材料。凯夫拉尔的优点包括重量轻,强度高达钢材的五倍。
LASH - 通常用绳子或蹦极绳固定皮艇甲板上的装备。
发射 - 推动皮艇或其他船从岸上进入水中的行为。
LEEWARD - 远离风。顺风。
LIFE JACKET - 一种由桨手佩戴的漂浮装置,用于提供水中的浮力。也被称为救生背心或PFD。
OUTFITTER - 为皮划艇和野外旅行提供所有必要设备的商业公司。
OUTSIDE BANK(外部银行) - 河流或河流弯道的外部。
PADDLE - 带有两个平坦叶片的轴,用于在水中推进皮艇。桨可以由木头,铝或塑料制成。
剥皮 - 技术上留下漩涡,桨手将皮划艇指向上游,植入高支撑杆,并让主要电流绕过河流进入河流。
PFD - 个人浮选设备。见救生衣。
枕形岩石 - 一种具有欺骗性的河流特征,水流缓慢地流过水下障碍物。
沥青 - 一条陡峭的河段。突然下降。
PIVOT - 在水中急转弯。
PLAYBOATING - 在白水皮划艇上表演特技和其他动作的行为。通常只适用于高级手推车。
游泳池 - 溪流或河流上的平静水域。
POWER FACE - 桨叶推动水面的表面。
PRY STROKE。用于将制作工艺侧向移离桨板的桨冲程。
采购。在桨上施加动力以获得杠杆作用。
PUT-IN。独木舟放置在水中的地方; 一个发射场; 旅行的开始。
设营。与风浪成一定角度; 一种以微小的角度骑在海浪上的技术,以避免将弓埋在驻波中。
RAPIDS - 通常伴有岩石和陡峭坡度的快速湍流白水。
读水 - 一种判断水情况并确定通过河流上的急流的最佳路线的技术。
REVERSAL - 一种类似于漩涡的水流特征,电流本身反转回来。逆转通常是由表面或水下的岩石或其他障碍物引起的。
RIFFLES - 在I级白水中发现轻微,浅水急流。
SCOUTING - 在尝试之前检查河流未知部分的行为。始终是避免麻烦的好方法。
Schering - 一种支撑行程,使桨在水中始终以反复的拱形运动。用于在倾覆后或遇到困难的水时支撑桨手。
轴 - 在皮划艇桨上,把手和桨叶之间的把手区域。
鞋 - 水体中特别浅的区域,通常由沙坝或其他水下障碍物形成。
SLALOM - 一种通过一系列大门操纵皮艇的河流赛车形式。
吸烟者 - 一段激进或暴力的白水。
SPRAY SKIRT - 围绕桨手腰部的织物裙子,防止水从驾驶舱进入船内。
SQUALL - 在水面上快速移动的风暴,通常伴随着阵阵风雨。
稳定波 - 波浪在一个地方保持静止的白水功能。用于冲浪和其他playboating演习。
STARBOARD - 面向船头的皮划艇右侧。
斯特恩 - 皮划艇或其他水上飞机的后部。
过滤器。掉入河中的刷子或树木,通常在弯道外面。目前可能会横扫,但障碍物会阻止一艘船。可致命。
STROKES - 用于控制皮艇速度和方向的各种划桨动作。
闪光灯 - 闪光灯安装在海上皮划艇上,作为该地区其他船只的警告信号。
冲浪 - 在海洋或白浪激流中“骑”波阵面的行为。
SWAMP - 当皮艇倾覆或无意中充满水时。
TANDUM KAYAK - 一艘皮划艇,可容纳两名桨手。通常是海上皮划艇。也被称为“K-2”皮划艇。
技术通道 - 一段艰难的急流,需要小心操纵才能安全通行。
喉咙 - 桨叶轴上的区域扇出到更宽的叶片中。
TROUGH - 两波之间的凹陷。
进行中 - 唉,这趟旅程已经开始了。
甚高频无线电 - 甚高频无线电。使用海上皮艇获取当前的天气状况和其他信息。也可用于在紧急情况下发出遇险呼叫。
WATERLINE - 皮划艇或其他水上运输工具漂浮时沿着船体的水线。
WAVE CREST - 波谷的顶峰,在波谷的对面。
WET EXIT - 在没有选择滚动的情况下舀出翻滚的皮划艇。
WET SUIT - 靠近身体穿着的氯丁橡胶紧身衣裤,用于防止冷水的寒冷。在寒冷的天气情况下,一件好的湿衣服可以保护桨手免受低温。
白水 - 也被称为急流和野水。一阵湍急的快速流动的水流经岩石,瀑布和其他障碍物。
WINDWARD - 风吹的方向。背风的反面。

 

 

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